Systematic Reviews

Systematic review is the methodology underpinning all evidence based decision making. It avoids bias and opinion. Using this technique, we provide a transparent summary of the whole evidence base. We identify the best evidence and the evidence gaps; enabling the client to make informed decisions

We specialise in systematic reviews of early stage preclinical studies: translational medicine, precision medicine, genomics, stem cell therapy, immunotherapy and gene therapy. We have expertise in clinical systematic reviews, health technology appraisals, rapid reviews, critical appraisal, biostatistics, literature reviews, epidemiology

We bring scientific experience and critical systematic review processes to the preparation of landscape reviews - highlighting the strengths, weaknesses and evidence gaps in any unexplored field of interest

Systematic reviews take 3 -24 months to perform

Rapid Reviews take 1 week - 3 months to perform

We can assess clinical trial risk of bias, preclinical risk of bias (SYRCLE), biomarker validity, model validity, tissue sample validity, outcome validity

We can evaluate the likelihood of reproducibility in preclinical and biomedical studies

We can help you perform sample size calculations to improve reproducibility and ensure biological/ clinical effect

We can perform meta-analysis and indirect comparisons

Tailored Evaluations

If the methodology of a full systematic review is not required or is too time consuming, evaluations can be tailored to the client’s needs

Through close consultation we can provide minimum extractions or evaluations with accompanying validity or risk of bias tools.

We can provide evaluations and comparisons of the validity of a set of preclinical models. We can help match the best validated cancer model for your needs

Tailored evaluations/ rapid reviews take 1 week to 3 months to perform

Accelerated methods include:

• No searches are performed, the client provides the data, publications or trial documents (single or multiple)

• Use of single reviewer

• Limited data extraction, or report writing

• Stand alone evaluations of risk of bias or validity or reproducibility

For clients interested in PDX cancer models we have existing validations for breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer xenografts.

Medical Writing

Our team work with clients throughout their study to provide a comprehensive service from initial study design through to manuscript preparation

  • Preparation of manuscripts for publication

  • Preparation of poster presentations and slide decks

Useful Links

Protocol Submissions

PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews:

CAMARADES register of protocols for animal based systematic reviews:

OPEN SCIENCE FRAMEWORK an open source software project that facilitates open collaboration in science research.

Appraisal / Quality Tools

ROBIS risk of bias in systematic reviews:

SYRCLE risk of bias tool for animal study design:

Reporting Guidelines

PRISMA guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses:

PRISMA guidelines for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy:

ARRIVE guidelines for the reporting of in vivo animal studies:

PREPARE guidelines for planning animal experiments:



A transparent approach to grading quality (or certainty) of evidence and making recommendations:


Open science Mooc:

Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions:

There are 4 stages to our process

1 We work with our clients to define the research question

2 We help the client decide whether they require a systematic review or a rapid or scoping review or a tailored evaluation of the evidence

3 We help the client decide what quality tool is required. This could be:

In-house validation tools for model, outcome, marker or tissue validity

The statistical reliability (reproducibility) of the evidence

Published preclinical study risk of bias tools

4 A report is compiled which presents the evidence in a transparent manner. We provide layered evidence; a summary evidence table backed by detailed data and methodology

What you can expect

1 Dedicated Project Manager who will tailor the service to your needs

2 We take time to understand what is important to your project, ensuring this is clearly captured, translated and delivered by our team

3 Regular communication to ensure you are kept fully up to date on project progress

4 Clear and detailed documentation and reporting of all project deliverables